Red Turban Rebellion
The Red Turban Rebellion (Chinese: 紅巾起義; pinyin: Hóngjīn Qǐyì) was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Yuan dynasty of China, eventually leading to its overthrowing.
The Red Turban Army (紅巾軍) was originally started by the followers of White Lotus andManichaeism and was founded by Kuo Tsu-hsing to resist the Mongols. The name "Red Turban" was used because of their tradition of using red banners and wearing red turbans to distinguish themselves.
These rebellions began on a sporadic basis, firstly on the coast of Zhejiang, when Fang Guozhen (a Han Chinese) and his men assaulted a group of Yuan officials. After that, the White Lotus society led by Han Shantong in the north of the Yellow River became the centre of anti-Mongol sentiment. A few of the rebellion groups made overtures to the Korean Kingdom of Goryeo, technically a tributary ally of the Yuan dynasty. Though initially successful, they were eventually expelled by the Goryeo army led by Choe Yeong and Yi Seonggye.
In 1351, the society plotted an armed rebellion, but the plan was disclosed and Han Shantong was arrested and executed by the Yuan Government. After his death, Liu Futong(劉福通), a prominent member of the White Lotus, assisted Han's son, Han Lin'er (韓林兒), to succeed his father and establish the Red Turban Army. After that, several other Han rebels in the south of the Yangtze River revolted under the name of the Southern Red Turbans. Among the key leaders of the Southern Red Turbans were Xu Shouhui and Chen Youliang. The rebellion was also supported by the leaderships of Peng Yingyou (1338) and Zou Pusheng (1351).
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