Y# 520, East Hopei WWII Japanese puppet state, East Hebei Autonomous (1937) 20 Cent
WWII Japanese puppet state
The East Hebei Autonomous Council Year 26 (1937) 20 Cent
Y# 520, East Hopei, Pagoda
The East Hebei Autonomous Council Year 26 (1937) 20 Cent Copper-nickel
Obverse: T'ien-ning pagoda in Beijing
The East Hopeh Autonomous Council
The East Hopeh Autonomous Council (Chinese: 冀東防共自治政府; ) also known as the East Ji Autonomous Council and the East Hopei Autonomous Anti-Communist Council, was a short-lived late-1930s Japanese puppet state in northern China.
After the creation of Manchukuo and subsequent military action by the Imperial Japanese Army, which brought Northeastern China east of the Great Wall under Japanese control, the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China signed the Tanggu Truce which established a demilitarised zone south of the Great Wall, extending from Tientsin to Peiping (Peking). Under the terms of the Truce and the subsequent He-Umezu Agreement of 1935, this demilitarized zone was also purged on the political and military influence of the Kuomingtang government of China.
On 15 November 1935, the local Chinese administrator of the 22 counties in Hopei province, Yin Ju-keng, proclaimed the territories under his control to be autonomous. Ten days later, on 25 November, he proclaimed them to be independent of the Republic of China and to have their capital at T'ungchow. The new government immediately signed economic and military treaties with Japan. The Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps that had been created by the Tanggu Truce was disbanded and reorganized as the East Hopei Army with Japanese military support. The Japanese goal was to establish a buffer zone between Manchukuo and China, but the pro-Japanese collaborationist regime was seen as an affront by the Chinese government and a violation of the Tanggu Truce.
The East Hopeh government survived the Tungchow Mutiny in late July 1937 before being absorbed into the collaborationist Provisional Government of China in December 1937.