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World first perforation stamp Penny Red Queen Victoria 1850-1854 Authentic Plate

World first perforation stamp Penny Red Queen Victoria 1850-1854 Authentic Plate TI

 

Penny Red Queen Victoria issued in 1850/1854

World first perforation stamp

The 1d Red was a development of the Penny Black with the colour being changed from black to red so that the new black Maltese Cross cancellation could be clearly seen.
Perforations, in an experimental gauge 16, first came into use in 1850 and were officially adopted in 1854, also in gauge 16. The experimental perforated issue can be distinguished from the general issue as the latter was applied to a stamp that used a different alphabet type for the identifying letters. In January 1855, the perforation size was changed from 16 to 14 as it was found that the sheets were coming apart too easily; the reduced size allowed the sheets to remain intact until pressure was applied to force the separation. The upper corners of each stamp were now occupied by the same identifying letters in reverse.

 

Plate configuration: TI

The upper corners were occupied by stars.
Each stamp had unique letters AA, AB etc. in its lower corners, so that its position on the plate could be identified:

Plate configuration
AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL
BA BB BC BD BE BF BG BH BI BJ BK BL
• • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • •
SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SI SJ SK SL
TA TB TC TD TE TF TG TH TI TJ TK TL

 

The world's first adhesive postage stamp

The Penny Black and Red were the world's first adhesive postage stamps used in a public postal system. It was issued in Britain on 1 May 1840, for official use from 6 May of that year and features a profile of the Queen Victoria. All London post offices received official issues of the new stamps but other offices throughout the United Kingdom did not, continuing to accept postage payments in cash only for a period. Post offices such as those in Bath began offering the stamp unofficially after 2 May 1840. The colour was changed from black to red because of difficulty in seeing a cancellation mark on the Penny Black; a black cancel was readily visible on a Penny Red.
 
Date of production1841–1879
PrinterPerkins, Bacon & Co
Perforation
  • 1841: none
  • 1850: 16 gauge (experimental)
  • 1854: 16 gauge
  • 1855: 14 gauge
DepictsQueen Victoria
Face value1d

Penny Red Queen Victoria

The Penny Red was a British postage stamp, issued in 1841. It succeeded the Penny Black and continued as the main type of postage stamp in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1879, with only minor changes to the design during that time. The colour was changed from black to red because of difficulty in seeing a cancellation mark on the Penny Black; a black cancel was readily visible on a Penny Red.

History

Initially, some of the same plates that were used to print the Penny Black were used to print the Penny Red and about 21 billion Penny Reds were printed by Messrs. Perkins, Bacon & Co. Initially, the stamp had no perforations, and had to be cut from the sheet using scissors in the same manner as for the Penny Black and the early printings of the Two pence blue. Perforations, (experimental gauge 16), first came into use in 1850 and were officially adopted in 1854 (in the same size as the experimental issue). The experimental issue can be distinguished from the general issue as the later was applied to stamp which used a different alphabet type for the letters in the lower corners. Each stamp has unique corner letters AA, AB, AC ... AL etc., so its position on the plate can be identified.
In January 1855, the perforation size was changed from 16 to 14 as it was found that the sheets were coming apart too easily. The reduced size allowed the sheets to remain intact until pressure was applied to force the separation.
The stamps were printed in sheets of 240 (20 rows of 12 stamps), so one row cost 1 shilling and a complete sheet one pound. This, 240 stamps per sheet, configuration continued with all British postage stamps issued until 1971 when decimal currency was introduced when the sheet size was changed to 200, (20 rows of 10 stamps) making the lowest value denomination (half penny) one pound per sheet.

 

Plate numbers

On 1 April 1864, the stamp was issued with the plate number engraved in the design, in the left and right side lace work. At this time, the stars in the top corners were also replaced with the same check letters as used in the lower corners, but in reverse order.

Because of wear, over 400 different plates were used to print the Penny Red. Two different basic watermarks were used for the paper, small crown, (on the early issues) and large crown, introduced on 15 May 1855. The first stamps printed on the large crown watermarked paper showed two small vertical lines in the central portion of the crown. Later printings showed a revised watermark on which these central lines are not present.


Chronology

  • 10 February 1841 - first issue: colour of 1d stamp changed from black to red-brown.

  • 24 February 1854 - perforations 16 introduced.

  • January 1855 - perforation size changed from 16 to 14.

  • 15 May 1855 - watermark changed from small crown to large crown.

  • 1858 - letters in all four corners, colour lake-red

  • 1 April 1864 - letters on all four corners and plate number engraved on each stamp from plate 71 onwards.

  • 27 October 1879 - last plate (225) put to press.

  • 3 December 1879 - contract to print the Penny Red formally ended.


The Jacob Perkins' press, that printed the Penny Black/Red and the 2d Blue, in the British Library Philatelic Collections.

World first perforation stamp Penny Red Queen Victoria 1850-1854 Authentic Plate

$9.99Price
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