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Rare Mother Coin 母錢 Yong Zheng Tong Bao, Bao He, Henan mint AD 1723-35

Rare Mother Coin 母錢 Yong Zheng Tong Bao, Bao He, Henan mint AD 1723-35

Qing Dynasty

Rare Mother Coin 母錢

Obv: Yong Zheng Tong Bao

Rev: Manchurian inscription " Bao He", Henan mint

Authenticity guaranteed for all items!

Reference: Hartill 22.165

Kaifeng, Henan

Obv: 雍正通寶 Yong Zheng Tong Bao


ᠪᠣᠣ ᡥᠣ

Bao He in Manchu


Mother Coins 母錢 in old Chinese coin making

During the Han Dynasty, Chinese mints partially solved the inconsistencies in cast coins by using bronze master moulds. Master moulds were used to prepare the clay moulds which will be used for the actual casting.

Advances in the casting process in the sixth century resulted in the introduction mother coins (mu qian). Mother coins were used to impress the designs of the coin on very fine wet sand that would act as moulds for the coins. A mother coin was prepared by carefully engraving a pattern of the coin in a material that can be easily worked with such as tin.

The coin casting process involves the use of a rectangular frame filled with fine wet sand, presumably mixed with clay, and sprinkled with charcoal or coal dust. The dust allows the molten metal to flow smoothly. It also acts as a layer that separates the two halves of the moulds.

Mother coins are pressed on the wet sand in the wooden frame (first half of the mould). Rods are placed between the coins to create channels where the molten metal can flow. A second frame (second half of the mould) is placed on top and pressed tightly. This imprints the designs of the obverse and reverse of the mother coins on the sand in the frames.

The mother coins are then removed and transferred on top of the second frame to create new moulds. This processed is repeated until up to fifteen layers of moulds are created. The wooden frames are bound tautly and filled with molten metal, usually bronze.

This process creates a coin tree cast coins connected by hardened metal on the channels. After brushing off the sand, coins are broken of the tree.

To make the edges smooth, the coins are strung together on a long square rod and the coin edges are filed down. It is further polished in tubs of chaff or sand before the final stringing.
The use of mother coins proved to be effective in controlling the quality of the coins. Slight differences between mother coins still existed however skillful the carver is.




Yongzheng Emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor (雍正帝 → yōngzhèngdì) (born Yinzhen (胤禛 → yìnzhēn) December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimum expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military force in order to preserve the dynasty's position. Suspected by historians to have usurped the throne, his reign was often called despotic, efficient, and vigorous. Although Yongzheng's reign was much shorter than the reigns of both his father, the Kangxi Emperor, and his son, the Qianlong Emperor, his sudden death was probably brought about by his workload. Yongzheng continued an era of continued peace and prosperity as he cracked down on corruption and waste, and reformed the financial administration.






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Rare Mother Coin 母錢 Yong Zheng Tong Bao, Bao He, Henan mint AD 1723-35

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