Xinjiang CHINA, Tsewang Arabtan, 1695-1727,
Red Copper Pul Coin, Yarkand mint
Material: Red Copper; 7.7 grams; 16.4 x 15 mm; Thickness: 6.8 mm
Dzungar (Jungar) Khanate,
Obv : Tsewang Arabtan (Khan) in Todo bicig Mongolian script
Rev : Zarb Yarkand in Arabic
Sinkiang Red Cash
China was known as "Serice" [means a country of silk] by the peoples of ancient Greece and Roma. Sinkiang is just located on the trunk of the Silk Road which connected the Central China and the western world before the sea route was germinated in the modern times. Since the establishment of the "Hsi-Yu Tu-HU-Fu" [General Governor's Office of the Western Region] in [now northeastern of Luntai] in the 2nd year of the Shen-Chueh period (60BC) of Emperor Hsuan Ti reign of the Western Han Dynasty, Sinkiang has been under the control sporadically of the Chinese governments of each dynasty for more than 2000 years.
Silk Road served as an important route of economic and cultural exchanges between the East and the West in the past. Before the issue of official currencies by the governments of ancient China, various kinds of coin were flowed into Sinkiang from Central-Asian, West-Asian as well as Central China and were circulated in different regions.
During early Qing dynasty, Dzungaria Tribes-made "Pul" copper coin were widely circulated in Sinkiang until the rebellion of the Dzungaria Tribes was put down by the Qing government in 1757.
Sinkiang had its own coinage was postponed until 1760, when the establishment of the (Yarkand) Yerkiyang Mint [now Sache] by the decree of Emperor Ch'ienlung of the Qing Dynasty. From that time, all the Dzungaria Tribes-made "Pul" coppers current in South Sinkiang be melted and recast into "Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao" red cash in the same shape as the Qing standard cash.
Pul coin was minted in Central Asia. "Pul" means copper money and "Tanga" means silver money. "Pul" was cast with copper, each piece weighting 0.2 tael and 50 pieces made a Tanga. As red cash was also made of copper, Chinese accustomed to call them "Pul" too.
[A History of Chinese Currency (16th Century BC - 20th Century AD), 1983 Jointly Published by Xinhua (New China), p.212]
Sinkiang is deivided by the Tianshan Mountains into two parts in the geographical features. In Chinese numismatics, the north of Tianshan Mountains is belonged to Standard Cash Circulation Zone, while the south of Tianshan Mountains is Red Cash Circulation Zone. During the early period of the Qing Dynasty, red cash were permitted to circulate in the south of Sinkiang only, until the 16th year of the Emperor Kuangshu region (1890), red cash was circulated in the north of Sinkiang too. The exchange rate of red cash for standard cash was 1 to 5 at the early beginning.
After 1760, when red cash started to circulate in the south of Sinkiang, standard cash from the other parts of China still circulating in the north of Sinkiang.].
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