CHINA, Kang Xi Tong Bao
Xi, West Mint
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Reference: Hartill 22.142
Obv: 康熙通寶 Kang Xi Tong bao
Rev: Xi in Manchu and Chinese, which means West
Variously attributed to Shanxi, Wu Sangui ( the Ping Xi Wang 平西王, Pacifying the West Prince).
The Kangxi Emperor
The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: 康熙帝; Manchu: elhe taifin hūwangdi; Mongolian: ᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ engke amuɣulang 'peace and tranquility'; 4 May 1654 ?20 December 1722) was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.
The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.
The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded the empire in the northwest. He also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.
The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for generations after his own lifetime. By the end of his reign, the Qing Empire controlled all of China proper, Taiwan, Manchuria, part of the Russian Far East (Outer Manchuria), both Inner and Outer Mongolia, and Tibet proper.
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