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Hartill 21.81 Taiwan Koxinga Zheng Chenggong 1651 Yong Li Tong Bao, seal script


Yong Li Tong Bao, 2 cash in seal script

Koxinga - Zheng Chenggong (1651-70) in Taiwan

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Weight: 6.5 grams; Size: 26.7 mm; Red Copper

Reference: Hartill 21.81

Koxinga - Zheng Chenggong (1651-70) in Taiwan

Yong Li Tong Bao, 2 Cash Coin, Seal Script

Obverse: "YONG-LI TONG BAO".


寶       通



Attributed to 鄭成功 Zheng Chenggong. Prince Tang had given Zheng the imperial surname of Zhu in 1645. Hence Zheng was popularly known as 國姓爺 Guo Xing Ye ( Lord of the Imperial Surmane) which the Dutch pronounced as Koxinga. When his father defected to the Qing in 1646, Koxinga embarked on a campaign against the Manchus in the southeast. In 1661 he turned his attention to Taiwan, which was ceded to him by Dutch in 1662. Here he continued to uphold the Ming cause, and dated documents with the Yongli period title, He died suddenly in 1662, and was succeeded by his son, Zheng Jing. Documentary evidence of between 1651 and 1682 shows that these coins were made for Koxinga in Japan, probably at Nagasaki, and were extensively used in Taiwan.


Koxinga, Zheng Chenggong

Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese-Japanese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China's southeastern coast. Conquering the Dutchoutposts on Taiwan, he established a dynasty which ruled the island as the Kingdom of Tungning.
In 1661, Koxinga led his troops on a landing at Lakjemuyse (zh) to attack the Dutch colonists in Dutch Formosa. The Taiwanese Aboriginal tribes who were previously allied with the Dutch against the Chinese during the Guo Huaiyi Rebellion in 1652 turned against the Dutch during the Siege of Fort Zeelandia and defected to Koxinga's Chinese forces.[22] The Aboriginals (Formosans) of Sincan defected to Koxinga after he offered them amnesty, the Sincan Aboriginals then proceeded to work for the Chinese and behead Dutch people in executions, the frontier aboriginals in the mountains and plains also surrendered and defected to the Chinese on May 17, 1661, celebrating their freedom from compulsory education under the Dutch rule by hunting down Dutch people and beheading them and trashing their Christian school textbooks. On 1 February 1662, the Dutch Governor of Formosa, Frederik Coyett, surrendered Fort Zeelandia to Koxinga. According to Frederick Coyett's account written after the siege to absolve himself of the Dutch defeat, during the siege, Koxinga's life was saved by a certain Hans Jurgen Radis of Stockaert, a Dutch defector who strongly advised him against visiting the overrun ramparts, which he knew would be blown up by the retreating Dutch forces. This claim of a Dutch defector only appears in Coyett's account and Chinese records make no such mention of any defector. In the peace treaty, Koxinga was styled "Lord Teibingh Tsiante Teysiancon Koxin". This effectively ended 38 years of Dutch rule on Taiwan. Koxinga then devoted himself to transforming Taiwan into a military base for loyalists who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty.

The Yongli Emperor

The Yongli Emperor (Chinese: 永曆; 1623–1662; reigned 18 November 1646 – 1 June 1662), personal name Zhu Youlang, was the fourth and last emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty of China. His era name means "Perpetual calendar".
Zhu Youlang was the son of Zhu Changying (朱常瀛), the seventh son of the Wanli Emperor. He inherited the title Prince of Gui (桂王) from his brother and lived an obscure life as a minor member of the extremely large imperial family until the fall of Beijing and the suicide of Chongzhen, the last Ming emperor, in 1644. The true beneficiaries of the collapse of the Ming were the Manchus, a northeastern people that rapidly conquered northern China, the Lower Yangtze valley, and Central China. Descendants of the Ming continued to hang on in the south, and Youlang ascended the throne as the fourth Southern Ming emperor, with the reign-title Yongli in November 1646. Then he converted to Christianity thanks to the efforts of Jesuit Michał Boym. By 1661, pressed back into Yunnan province, he fled in Burma. A Manchu army followed and captured him there, and he was executed in June 1662.



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Hartill 21.81 Taiwan Koxinga Zheng Chenggong 1651 Yong Li Tong Bao, seal script

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