Hartill 18.06 R3 Ki-tan Tartar Liao Dynasty Tong He Yuan Bao, 983-1012 AD
Ki-tan Tartar Liao Dynasty
Tong He Yuan Bao, 983-1012 AD
Reference: Hartill 18.06 R3
Emperor Shengzong of Liao
Emperor Shengzong of Liao (Chinese: 遼聖宗; pinyin: Liáo Shèngzōng) (January 16, 972 – June 25, 1031), born as Yelü Longxu (Chinese: 耶律隆緒), succeeded Emperor Jingzong as Emperor of the Liao Dynasty at the age of 12 in 982. As he was too young to actually rule, his mother, Empress Dowager Xiao, effectively ruled the kingdom. He reigned from October 14, 982 to June 25, 1031.
Tǒnghé (統和) 983-1012 AD
LIAO DYNASTY, AD 907-1125
The Liao were a Tartar Dynasty known as the Ch'i-tan or Ki-tan Tartars, first established by T'ai Tsu in AD 907 during the period of the 5 dynasties. The dynasty lasted for 218 years until AD 1125, ruling from their capital at Beijing. For most of their existence they existed along side the Northern Sung Dynasty, in what appears to be somewhat less than peaceful co-existance.
The first Emperor of Liao did not issue any coins. There were five Emperors between AD 907 and 1031 who issued coins, but only a handful of each type is known to exist and it is unlikely any genuine examples will come on the market. We have not listed them here as it is unlikely anyone viewing this site to identify a coin will have one, but you will find information on them on page 216 of David Hartill's book CAST CHINESE COINS. Schjoth (page 41) notes a record of the Liang Dynasty Emperor Mo, using the reign title Lung-te, issuing large numbers of coins during this period, which are likely what circulated in the Liao region for what little need the Liao people had of coins at that time.
The earliest readily available coins of Liao begin with the Emperor Hsing Tsung during his second reign title of Ch'ung Hsi after he established the first Liao central mint in Manchuria in AD 1053. The mint was not particularly skilled and most Liao coins are fairly crude, poor quality castings.
There are some differences in the dating of the Liao reign titles by Schjoth and Hartill, and we have chosen to use those given by Hartill as it is much more recent and almost certainly more reliable research.