Hartill 15.63 Qian Feng Quan Bao - Ce, Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms Supreme Comma

Hartill 15.63 Qian Feng Quan Bao - Ce, Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms Supreme Commander Ma Yin

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Qian Feng Quan Bao - Ce
Ce of Tiance Fu 925 AD
Supreme Commander Ma Yin


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Reference: Hartill 15.63

Size: 40.4 mm; 16.7 grams; Material: Bronze

Qian Feng Quan Bao - Ce


Tiance Fu 925 AD

Qian Feng Quan Bao (Chinese: 乾封泉寶; pinyin: qiān fēng quán bǎo) are made of iron. According to the histories, because there was much lead and iron in Hunan, Ma Yin took the advice of his minister Gao Yu to cast lead and iron coins at Changsha in 925. One of these was worth ten copper cash, and their circulation was confined to Changsha. Merchants traded in these coins, to the benefit of the State. In 2000, a hoard of over 3,000 of these coins was found near Changsha. Extremely rare bronze specimens are also known.


Kingdom Of Chu (907-51)

Supreme Commander Ma Yin:

  • Tian Ce Fu Bao (Chinese: 天策府寶; pinyin: tiān cè fǔ bǎo) are made of iron and bronze. Ma Yin, originally a carpenter, was given the rank of Supreme Commander of Tiance, Hunan, by Emperor Zhu Wen of the Later Liang, and minted this coin in 911 to commemorate the event. Ma Yin later became King Wumu of Chu.

Ma Yin (馬殷) (853-December 2, 930), courtesy name Batu (霸圖), formally King Wumu of Chu (楚武穆王), was a warlord late in the Chinesedynasty Tang Dynasty who became the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Chu and the only one who carried the title of "king." He initially took control of the Changsha region in 896 after the death of his predecessor Liu Jianfeng, and subsequently increased his territorial hold to roughly modern Hunan and northeastern Guangxi, which became the territory of Chu.

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

After the collapse of the Tang in 907, another period of disunity ensued known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Five officially recognised dynasties ruled consecutively in the north (with capitals at Kaifeng or Luoyang in Henan), while ten different kingdoms held sway at different times in the south. A shortage of copper made it difficult to produce an adequate supply of coins. In 955, an Edict banned the holding of bronze utensils:

“From now on, except for court objects, weapons, official objects and mirrors, and cymbals, bells and chimes in temples and monasteries, all other bronze utensils are banned... Those who hoard more than 5 jin, no matter how much the amount, will be executed. Those who abetted them will be exiled for two years, followed by labour service for one year. Those around them will suffer 100 strokes of the cane. Informers will be rewarded with 30 strings of cash.”

The south enjoyed somewhat better political and economic conditions, and saw an advance in trade. A great variety of coinage, including large and base metal coins, was issued in this area.





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Hartill 15.63 Qian Feng Quan Bao - Ce, Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms Supreme Comma



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