Hartill 15.108 Qian Heng Zhong Bao, Lead cash, Southern Han 917 AD Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Qian Heng Zhong Bao, Lead cash

Emperor Lie Zu (Liu Yan) of Southern Han 917-942 AD

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Reference: Hartill 15.108

25.4 mm; 4.1 grams; Material: Lead

Guangzhou Mint


Emperor Lie Zu (Liu Yan) of Southern Han (917-42)

  • Qian Heng tong bao (Chinese: 乾亨通寶; pinyin: gān hēngtōng bǎo)

  • Qian Heng zhong bao (Chinese: 乾亨重寶; pinyin: gān hēng zhòng bǎo) were made from bronze and lead.

In 917, Liu Yan proclaimed himself Emperor of a dynasty at first called the Great Yue, then the Han, and set up his capital at Canton, which he renamed Xingwangfu.

Liu Yan (simplified Chinese: 刘龑; traditional Chinese: 劉龑; pinyin: Líu Yán,Vietnamese: Lưu Nghiễm; 889–June 10, 942), né Liu Yan (劉巖), also known as Liu Zhi (劉陟) (from ~896 to 911) and briefly as Liu Gong (劉龔), formally Tianhuang Dadi (天皇大帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the first emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period stateSouthern Han.

Southern Han (simplified Chinese: 南汉; traditional Chinese: 南漢; pinyin:Nán Hàn) was a kingdom that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960) along China’s southern coast from 917 to 971. The Kingdom greatly expanded her capital city Hing Wong Fu (Chinese: 興王府; pinyin: Xìngwángfǔ), namely present-day Guangzhou. Not only did it have interaction with other Chinese kingdoms, but due to its location, it also had relations with the Viet (Chinese: 越) people to the south.

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

After the collapse of the Tang in 907, another period of disunity ensued known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Five officially recognised dynasties ruled consecutively in the north (with capitals at Kaifeng or Luoyang in Henan), while ten different kingdoms held sway at different times in the south. A shortage of copper made it difficult to produce an adequate supply of coins. In 955, an Edict banned the holding of bronze utensils:

“From now on, except for court objects, weapons, official objects and mirrors, and cymbals, bells and chimes in temples and monasteries, all other bronze utensils are banned... Those who hoard more than 5 jin, no matter how much the amount, will be executed. Those who abetted them will be exiled for two years, followed by labour service for one year. Those around them will suffer 100 strokes of the cane. Informers will be rewarded with 30 strings of cash.”

The south enjoyed somewhat better political and economic conditions, and saw an advance in trade. A great variety of coinage, including large and base metal coins, was issued in this area.

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Hartill 15.108 Qian Heng Zhong Bao, Lead cash, Southern Han 917 AD Five Dynastie



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