Republic of China
Copper 1 Cent Year 25 (1936)
KWANG-TUNG PROVINCE ONE CENT
Guangzhou, the City of Five Rams
A Qing-era portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".
Five Goat Coin
The inscription at the top translates as 揜epublic of China 25th Year?and 揗ade in Guangdong Province? The lower half of the coin displays five goats. The five goats are a reference to an ancient myth concerning the city of Guangzhou (Canton) which is located in Guangdong Province.
While specific details of the myth vary, the basic story is as follows. During the reign (899 BC ?892 BC) of King Yi (周懿王) of the Zhou Dynasty, the ancient city of Guangzhou (chuting 楚庭) suffered a great famine. The fields were parched and the people were starving. One day, five immortals (揷elestial beings? descended from the sky. Each immortal rode a goat and floated down on a cloud. In the mouths of each goat was a six-eared rice stalk. The immortals blessed the land to be forever free of famine and gave the stalks of rice to the people. The immortals then rode their clouds back into the sky. The five goats remained on a hillside and were transformed into stone.
With the gift of the rice stalks the famine ended and Guangzhou has enjoyed bountiful harvests ever since. Based on this myth, Guangzhou is known as the 揅ity of Goats?(yangcheng 羊城), 揝heaves of Rice City?(suicheng 穗城) and the 揅ity of Five Goats?(wuyangcheng 五羊城). In translation from the Chinese, the English words 揼oat?and 搑am?can be used interchangeably.
On the coin, each of the five goats is shown in a different pose and in such detail as to include whiskers. Other symbols of Guangzhou include the design surrounding the round hole which is meant to represent the battlements of the ancient wall that encircled the city.
To the left and right of the center hole are mountains from the Guangzhou area. If you look very carefully, you will notice that the mountain on the left appears to be farther in the distance than the one on the right. The attention to detail even includes displaying patches of grass for the goats to eat to signify that food is plentiful.
The reverse side of the coin is also rich in symbolic design. To the left of the hole is a rice stalk with six branches which refers to the rice stalks carried in the mouths of the goats in the ancient myth. This is also the official emblem of the city of Guangzhou.
Surrounding the hole is a clever design based on the Chinese character for 揼oat?(yang 羊). The artist has taken five of these characters and written them in ancient seal script. What appears at first glance to be a design is in fact 揻ive goats? connected in a circle.
To the right of the hole are two Chinese characters which mean 搊ne cent?(yi xian 壹仙). The character for 揷ent?(xian 仙) is used because it sounds like the English word 揷ent? However, this character (仙) also means 搃mmortal?and thus symbolizes the five immortals that descended from the heavens to save the people from the famine.
The goat was a symbol of 揼ood luck?to the ancient Chinese and was frequently used in sacrifice offerings to ancestors. For this reason, the Chinese word for 揳uspicious?or 搇ucky?(xiang 祥) includes the word 揼oat?(羊) as part of the character. Because the 揻ive goat?coin minted in Guangdong Province was determined not to be in accordance with the newly adopted national 搇egal tender?(fabi 法币) reforms of 1936, the coins were recalled and melted down after circulating for only a very short period of time.
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