Communist Party Mao Zedong Soviet Silver Dollar 1931 Pingjiang County Red China
The Chinese Soviet Republic
Soviet Silver One Dollar 1931 Pingjiang County
Communist Party Mao Zedong
(Pingjiang County Soviet Government, 1931)
CHINESE SOVIET REPUBLIC One Dollar 1931
Pingjiang, Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet
The Pingjiang Uprising was one of the famous armed uprisings led by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the early period of the Second Revolutionary Civil War. In April 1928, under the leadership of Peng Dehuai, the first regiment of the first independent division arrived at Pingjiang County, and the headquarters of the regiment and the first battalion were stationed at Tianyue Academy. Influenced by the Nanchang Uprising, the Autumn Harvest Uprising and the Guangzhou Uprising (that occurred earlier in succession), on July 22, under the leadership of Peng Dehuai, Teng Daiyuan, Huang Gongnue and other communists, the uprising in the academy was declared. After revolutionary soldiers and peasants in Pingjiang County captured Pingjiang County, the Fifth Army of China Workers' and Peasants' Red Army was formed with Peng Dehuai as corps commander and Teng Daiyuan as Party representative. Soon after, the Fifth Red Army began the Hunan-Jiangxi Border Revolutionary Base led by the CPC.
In the Chinese Civil War, Pingjiang was a part of the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Revolutionary Base Area (湘鄂赣革命根据地), and, from 1931 November, of the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet (湘鄂赣苏维埃)
The Communist Marshal Peng Dehuai was a Kuomintang Colonel in 1928, when he was stationed in Pingjiang with orders to eliminate local groups of communist guerrillas who had fled to the area following Chiang Kai-shek's nationwide suppression of Communists. Because Peng had secretly joined the Chinese Communist Party he instead kept his unit passive and began to organize local Communist Party branches. Peng rebelled against the Kuomintang in 28 July 1928, beginning his career as a military leader in the Red Army from his base in Pingjiang. Some of Peng's subordinates in the rebellion survived and became important military figures themselves, including generals Huang Kecheng and Peng Shaohui.
The Chinese Soviet Republic
The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR, simplified Chinese: 中华苏维埃共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華蘇維埃共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghu?Sūw閕'āi G騨gh間u?, also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet). It was established in November 1931 by future Communist Party of China leader Mao Zedong, General Zhu De and others, and it lasted until 1937. Discontiguous territories included the Northeastern Jiangxi, Hunan-Jiangxi, Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi, Hunan-Western Hubei, Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou, Shaanxi-Gansu, Szechuan-Shensi, Hubei-Henan-Anhui, Honghu and Haifeng-Lufeng Soviets. |image_flag = Second War Flag of Chinese Soviet Republic.svg Mao Zedong was both CSR state chairman and prime minister; he led the state and its government. Mao's tenure as head of a "small state within a state" gave him experience in mobile warfare and peasant organization; this experience helped him accomplish the Communist reunification of China during the late 1940s. The CSR was eventually destroyed by the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in a series of 1934 encirclement campaigns. Following the Xi'an Incident of December 1936, the Communists and Kuomintang formed an uneasy "United Front" to resist Japanese pressure, which led to the Communists recognizing at least for the moment Chiang Kai-shek as China's leader and the official dissolution of the Soviet Republic on 22 September 1937.
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