Bao Ning Tong Bao 5 Cash Size Coin Ki-tan Tartar Liao Dynasty, 969-979 AD Green Patina
Ki-tan Tartar Liao Dynasty
Bao Ning Tong Bao, 969-979 AD
5 Cash Size coin
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Obverse: Bao Ning Tong Bao
The Emperor Jingzong of Liao (Chinese: 辽景宗; pinyin: Liáo Jǐngzōng) (September 1, 948 – October 13, 982), born as Yelü Xian (Chinese: 耶律賢; pinyin: Yēlǜ Xián), was an emperor of the Liao Dynasty and reigned from March 13, 969 to October 13, 982.
Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn succeeded Muzong in 969 after Muzong was murdered in a hunting trip. He had support from both Khitan and Han officials.
Emperor Jingzong made several important contributions to Liao Dynasty. He started to use Han officials in the government, appointing one as the Minister of Southern Affairs and the Duke of Qin. This allowed the government to run more efficiently and sped up the transformation of Liao society into a feudal society.
He cracked down on corruption in the government, firing those who were bribed or incompetent. Jingzong also accepted criticisms willingly. He stopped hunting frequently after an official made a connection between hunting and Muzong's death, and Jingzong began to prepare war against his southern neighbors.
LIAO DYNASTY, AD 907-1125
The Liao were a Tartar Dynasty known as the Ch'i-tan or Ki-tan Tartars, first established by T'ai Tsu in AD 907 during the period of the 5 dynasties. The dynasty lasted for 218 years until AD 1125, ruling from their capital at Beijing. For most of their existence they existed along side the Northern Sung Dynasty, in what appears to be somewhat less than peaceful co-existance.
The first Emperor of Liao did not issue any coins. There were five Emperors between AD 907 and 1031 who issued coins, but only a handful of each type is known to exist and it is unlikely any genuine examples will come on the market. We have not listed them here as it is unlikely anyone viewing this site to identify a coin will have one, but you will find information on them on page 216 of David Hartill's book CAST CHINESE COINS. Schjoth (page 41) notes a record of the Liang Dynasty Emperor Mo, using the reign title Lung-te, issuing large numbers of coins during this period, which are likely what circulated in the Liao region for what little need the Liao people had of coins at that time.
The earliest readily available coins of Liao begin with the Emperor Hsing Tsung during his second reign title of Ch'ung Hsi after he established the first Liao central mint in Manchuria in AD 1053. The mint was not particularly skilled and most Liao coins are fairly crude, poor quality castings.
There are some differences in the dating of the Liao reign titles by Schjoth and Hartill, and we have chosen to use those given by Hartill as it is much more recent and almost certainly more reliable research.